|  e-ISSN: 2618-589X

Original article | TAY Journal 2023, Vol. 7(4) 846-872

Effectiveness of Presenting the Touch Math Technique on a Tablet in Teaching Simple Addition to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

Abdurahman Demir, Sertan Talas, Yasin Gökbulut

pp. 846 - 872   |  DOI: https://doi.org/10.29329/tayjournal.2023.610.07   |  Manu. Number: tay journal.2023.050

Published online: October 30, 2023  |   Number of Views: 14  |  Number of Download: 228


Individuals with autism spectrum disorder often struggle with essential skills like mathematics, which are vital for independence. This includes understanding numbers, managing money, shopping, grasping time concepts, recognizing shapes, and arithmetic problem-solving. This research evaluates the effectiveness of the "Touch Math" method, delivered via tablet, in teaching basic addition to individuals with autism spectrum disorder. This technique is recognized in literature for its potential in teaching numbers and arithmetic. The study was conducted using the participant-across multiple probe design, a single-subject research method. The participant-across multiple probe design is a single-subject research method conducted with multiple participants to reveal the effects of an independent variable on a dependent variable. Four students aged 8-10 with autism spectrum disorder participated in the study. The findings indicate that the tablet-based "Touch Math" method effectively teaches them basic addition skills. The data of the study show that the "Touch Math" technique demonstrates 100% success in teaching addition skills to participants after an average of 7 to 9 teaching sessions. The follow-up data of the research show that participants maintained their acquired skills at a 100% level in the follow-up sessions conducted on the seventh, fourteenth, and twenty-first days after the teaching sessions. The study's findings show that participants applied their learned skills across various settings and people. Feedback from participants, their parents, and teachers affirmed the positive social validity of the study's methods, especially the tablet presentation. Based on these findings, suggestions have been made for future studies and practitioners.

Keywords: Touch Math technique, tablet, simple addition process, autism spectrum disorder

How to Cite this Article?

APA 6th edition
Demir, A., Talas, S. & Gokbulut, Y. (2023). Effectiveness of Presenting the Touch Math Technique on a Tablet in Teaching Simple Addition to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder . TAY Journal, 7(4), 846-872. doi: 10.29329/tayjournal.2023.610.07

Demir, A., Talas, S. and Gokbulut, Y. (2023). Effectiveness of Presenting the Touch Math Technique on a Tablet in Teaching Simple Addition to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder . TAY Journal, 7(4), pp. 846-872.

Chicago 16th edition
Demir, Abdurahman, Sertan Talas and Yasin Gokbulut (2023). "Effectiveness of Presenting the Touch Math Technique on a Tablet in Teaching Simple Addition to Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder ". TAY Journal 7 (4):846-872. doi:10.29329/tayjournal.2023.610.07.


    Acungil, A. T. (2014). Zihin yetersizliği olan öğrencilere görsel-işitsel teknolojilerle sunulan tablet bilgisayar öğretim programının etkililiği [Effectiveness of tablet computer instruction program (tacip) presented via audio-visual technologies on teaching the use of tablet computer to students with intellectual disability]. (Tez No. 373611). [Master's Thesis, Anadolu University], National Thesis Center.

    American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (DSM-5). American Psychiatric.

    Avant, M. J. T., & Heller, K. W. (2011). Examining the effectiveness of Touch Math with students with physical disabilities. Remedial and Special Education, 32(4), 309-321.

    Badır, T. (2014). Zihin engelli bireylere çıkarma işlemi öğretiminde sabit bekleme süreli öğretimle sunulan nokta belirleme tekniğinin etkililiği [The effectiveness of the touchmath teknique presented with constant time delay method on teaching the mentally retarded individuals subraction]. (Tez No. 357733). [Master Thesis, Abant İzzet Baysal University], National Thesis Center.

    Baroody, A. J. (1987). The development of counting strategies for single-digit addition. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 18(2), 141-157.

    Bosseler, A., & Massaro, D. W. (2003). Development and evaluation of a computer- animated tutor for vocabulary and language learning in children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 33, 653–672.

    Bullock, J. K., Pierce, S., & McClelland, L. (1989). Touch Math: The touch point approach for teaching basic math computation. Colorado Springs.

    Burke, R. V., Anderson, M. N., Bowen, S. L., Howard, M. R., & Allen, K. D. (2010). Evaluation of two instruction methods to increase employment options for young adults with autism spectrum disorders. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 31(6),1223–1233.

    Can-Çalık, N. (2008). Genel eğitim sınıflarında eğitim gören zihin engelli öğrencilere temel toplama becerilerinin öğretiminde nokta belirleme tekniğinin etkililiğinin incelenmesi [The investigation of the effectiveness of the instruction with the touch math technique on the basic summation skills of the students with mild mental retardation in the regular classes]. (Tez No. 232004). [Master's Thesis, Ankara University], National Thesis Center.

    Cawley, J. F. (l978). An instructional design in mathematics: Teaching the learning- disabled adolescent. Houghton Mifflin Company.

    Cihak, D. F., & Foust, J. L. (2008). Comparing number lines and touch points to teach addition facts to students with autism. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 23(3), 131-137.

    Coleman-Martin, M. B., Heller, K. W., Cihak, D. F., & Irvine, K. L. (2005). Using computer-assisted instruction and the nonverbal reading approach to teach word identification. Focus on Autism and other developmental disabilities, 20(2), 80-90.

    Cresswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative. Pearson.

    Değirmenci, D. H., & Özen, A. (2013, October 30-November 1). The effectiveness of video modeling strategy in teaching hotel card services skills to individuals with intellectual disabilities [Conference session]. 23rd National Special Education Congress, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu.

    Eliçin, Ö., Dağseven Emecen, D., & Yıkmış, A. (2013). The effectiveness of teaching basic addition prodedures to children with intellectual disabilities by direct instruction method using point identification technique. Marmara University Atatürk Faculty of Education Journal of Educational Sciences, 37(37), 118-136.

    Engelhardt, C. R., Mazurek, M. O., & Sohl, K. (2019). Media use and sleep among boys with autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, or typical development. Pediatrics, 134(6), 1081-1088.

    Fletcher, D., Boon, R. T., & Cihak, D. F. (2010). Effects of the touchmath program compared to a number line strategy to teach addition facts to middle school students with moderate intellectual disabilities. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 45(3), 449–458.

    Fletcher-Watson, S., Petrou, A., Scott-Barrett, J., Dicks, P., Graham, C., O'Hare, A., ... & McConachie, H. (2016). A trial of an iPad™ intervention targeting social communication skills in children with autism. Autism, 20(7), 771-782.

    Genç, E. D., Issı, H. N., & Yıldız, O. (2017). A mobile application based on point detection technique for mathematics teaching. Istanbul Journal of Innovation in Education, 3(1), 55-62.

    Horner, R. H., Carr, E. G., Halle, J., McGee, G. Odom, S., & Wolery, M. (2005). The use of single subject research to identify evidence-based practise in special education. Exeptional Children, 2(71), 165-180.

    Jordan, N. C., Kaplan, D., Ramineni, C., & Locuniak, M. N. (2007). Predicting first-grade math achievement from developmental number sense trajectories. Learning Disabilities Research & Practice, 22(1), 36-46.

    Kagohara, D. M., van der Meer, L., Ramdoss, S., O’Reilly, M. F., Lancioni, G. E., Davis, T. N., ... & Sutherland, D. (2013). Using iPods® and iPads® in teaching programs for individuals with developmental disabilities: A systematic review. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 34(1), 147-156.

    King, S. A., Lemons, C. J., & Davidson, K. A. (2016). Math interventions for students with autism spectrum disorder: a best-evidence synthesis. Exceptional Children, 82(4), 443-462.

    Koegel, L. K., Singh, A. K., & Koegel, R. L. (2013). Improving motivation for academics in children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 43(9), 2114-2123.

    Kot, M. (2019). Zihin yetersizliği olan öğrencilere çarpma ve bölme işlemlerinin öğretiminde nokta belirleme tekniğinin farklı sunumlarının karşılaştırılması [Comparison of different presentations of touchmath technique in the teaching of multiplication and division processes for intellectual disability]. (Tez No. 597428). [Master Thesis, Bolu Abant İzzet Baysal University], National Thesis Center.

    Kramer, T., & Krug, D. A. (1973). A Rationale and Procedure for Teaching Addition. Education and Training of the Mentally Retarded, 8(3), 140-5.

    Kurt, O. (2012). Sosyal geçerlik [Social validity]. In E. Tekin-İftar (Ed.), Eğitim ve davranış bilimlerinde tek-denekli araştırmalar [Single-subject research in education and behavioral sciences]. (pp. 375-402). Turkish Psychologists Association.

    Littlefield, L. (2003). A comparison of two methods of addition ınstruction, touchpoints and manipulatives, with first grade students with learning disabilities in a resource classroom to determine effıciency and effectiveness. [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Kentucky.

    Lorah, E. R., Tincani, M., Dodge, J., Gilroy, S., Hickey, A., & Hantula, D. (2015). Evaluating picture exchange and the iPad™ as a speech generating device to teach communication to young children with autism. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 27(6), 881-896.

    Lord, C., Elsabbagh, M., Baird, G., & Veenstra-Vanderweele, J. (2018). Autism spectrum disorder. The Lancet, 392(10146), 508-520.

    Massaro, D. W., & Bosseler, A. (2006). Read my lips: The importance of the face in a computer-animated tutor for vocabulary learning by children with autism. Autism, 10(5), 495–510.

    Ministry of National Education [MoNE] (2008). Özel eğitim ve rehabilitasyon merkezi zihinsel engelli bireyler destek eğitim programı [Special education and rehabilitation center mentally disabled individuals support education program]. Ankara. Access of date: 23.04.2023

    Minshew, N. J., Goldstein, G., Taylor, H. G., & Siegel, D. J. (1994) Academic achievement in high functioning autistic individuals. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 16(2), 261-270.

    Murdock, L. C., Ganz, J., & Crittendon, J. (2013). Use of an iPad play story to increase play dialogue of preschoolers with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of autism and developmental disorders, 43, 2174-2189.

    Newman, T. M. (1994). The effectiveness of a multisensory approach for teaching addition to children vvith Down syndrome. [Unpublised master thesis]. McGill University.

    Nuhoğlu, H., & Eliçin, Ö. (2013). The use of pointing technique (Touch Math) in teaching mathematics skills. Ankara University Faculty of Educational Sciences Journal of Special Education, 14(01), 021-036.

    Öncül, N., & Yücesoy Özkan, Ş. (2010). Teaching the daily living skills to adults with moderate and severe intellectual disabilities using video modeling. Anadolu University Journal of Social Sciences, 10(3), 143–156.

    Özkan, Y. Ş. (2013, October 30-November 1). Comparison of teaching video models in which peers and individuals themselves are models in teaching first aid skills to children with intellectual disabilities. [Conference session]. 23rd National Special Education Congress, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu.

    Öztürk, H. Z. (2016). Tablet bilgisayar üzerinde eş zamanlı ipucuyla sunulan Nokta Belirleme Tekniğinin rakam-nesne eşlemesi öğretiminde etkililiği [The effectiveness of touch math to teach number-object matching via simultaneous prompting on a tablet computer]. (Tez No. 418154). [Master Thesis, Bolu Abant İzzet Baysal University], National Thesis Center.

    Parsons, S., & Cobb, S. (2014). State-of-the-art of virtual reality technologies for children on the autism spectrum. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 29(3), 355-366

    Pupo, M. (1994). Teaching intellectually disabled students addition through a multisensory approach. [Unpublished master thesis]. McGiII University.

    Robertson, A. E., & Ne'eman, A. D. (2012). Autistic acceptance, the college campus, and technology: Growth of neurodiversity in society and academia. Disability Studies Quarterly, 32(4).

    Sani-Bozkurt, S. (2012). Otizmli çocuklara rol oyun becerilerinin öğretiminde akran ve yetişkin modelin kullanıldığı video modelin etkililiği ve verimliliği [The effectiveness and efficiency of video modeling where peer and adult model used in teaching role playing skills to children with autism]. (Tez No. 298168). [Master's Thesis, Anadolu University], National Thesis Center.

    Schlosser, R. W., Wendt, O., Angermeier, K., & Shetty, M. (2014). Searching for evidence in augmentative and alternative communication: Navigating a scattered literature. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 20(4), 233-255.

    Simon, R., & Hanrahan, J. (2004). An evaluation of the Touch Math method for teaching addition to students with learning disabilities in mathematics, European Journal of Special Needs Education, 19(2), 191-209. https://doi.org/10.1080/08856250410001678487

    Sneider, C., & Beals, K. (2006). Scaffolding the writing of students with disabilities through procedural facilitation: Using an Internet-based technology to improve performance. Learning Disability Quarterly, 29(1), 9-29.

    Tekin-İftar, E. (2012). Çoklu yoklama modelleri [Multiple porobe models]. In E. Tekin-İftar (Ed.), Eğitim ve davranış bilimlerinde tek-denekli araştırmalar [Single-subject research in education and behavioral sciences] (pp. 217-243-402). Nobel.

    Tekin-İftar, E., & Kırcaali-İftar, G. (2004). Özel eğitimde yanlışsız öğretim yöntemleri [Errorless teaching methods in special education]. Nobel.

    Velasco, V. (2009). Effectiveness of touch math in teaching addition to kindergarten students (Publication No. 1472250). [Doctoral dissertation, California State University]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

    Whyte, E. M., Smyth, J. M., & Scherf, K. S. (2018). Designing serious game interventions for individuals with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 48(12), 2714-2730.

    Williams, K. F. (2013). The use of video prompting via an iPad® and a system of least-to-most prompting to teach individuals with moderate intellectual disabilities the vocational task of rolling silverware (Publication No. 3604848). [Doctoral dissertation, Liberty University]. ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global.

    Yıkmış, A. (2016). Effectiveness of the touch math technique in teaching basic addition to children with Autism. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 16(3), 1005-1025.